New anti-forensics tool SetRegTime can change Registry last write times. | via @
Chad Tilbury


Harlan Carvey discusses the ramifications of Windows Registry anti-forensics on his blog:

You can find SetRegTime here:

Collusion for Chrome Graph

While doing some browser forensics research, I stumbled upon a Chrome extension named Collusion for Chrome.     This extension provides a visual representation of the tracking information shared with third party sites during web browsing .  While the notion of browser tracking is hardly surprising these days, Collusion provides some of the most compelling evidence I have seen for the “Do Not Track” movement.

As an example, the image above shows my browser activity during a brief period.   I selected a specific node corresponding to and you can see the vast number of external connections a visit to Wired spawns.  Information about the various contacted sites can be identified using the following key:

  • Blue nodes:  Sites previously visited by the user
  • Gray nodes:  Third party sites receiving browser data (never visited by user)
  • Red nodes:  Known aggregators of tracking information (the slash indicates the site was blocked by Collusion)

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Mastering Windows Network Forensics and Investigations fills an interesting niche not well addressed in the pantheon of digital forensics resources.  The material is well suited for beginning and intermediate forensic examiners looking to better understand network artifacts and go beyond single-system forensics.  I highly recommend it for system administrators looking for a different perspective on network security or those interested in designing networks to be forensics-friendly.  That said, the topics covered do not fit within the classical definition of network forensics.  A more apt title might be Mastering Incident Response Forensics and Investigations.

This is the first book I have read in the Sybex Mastering series, and I was impressed with the writing, research, and editing.  The authors blended dense material with relevant examples and insightful and engaging text boxes.  Some of my favorite “side” topics were:

  • “Cross-platform Forensic Artifacts”
  • “Registry Research”, illustrating the use of Procmon for application footprinting
  • “Time is of the Essence”, explaining fast forensics using event logs and the registry

Mastering Windows Network Forensics and InvestigationThe book begins with four chapters familiarizing the reader with Windows networking.  While this may slow down those hungry for forensics topics, they are replete with information.  Windows domains, hacking methodology, and Windows credentials are all described in these early chapters.  Amazingly, this is the first forensics book I have read containing a discussion of the NTDS.DIT Active Directory database file, perhaps the most dangerous file in the enterprise.  While there were probably too many pages spent on password sniffing and cracking, I recognize it is beneficial to understand the risks and I commend the authors for also mentioning pass the hash and token stealing attacks.  It would have been valuable to see these same attacks identified later in the book via Windows registry and log artifacts. Continue Reading…

Excellent intro to Windows Internals: Windows Exploratory Surgery with Process Hacker | #DFIR
Chad Tilbury

History of Encryption Continue Reading…

Excellent guide to Windows 8 forensic artifacts. Nice work @!
Chad Tilbury


UPDATE:  A new version of the Windows 8 Forensic Guide can be found here:

One of the fun things I have been working on is the huge revision of the SANS Forensics 508: Advanced Forensics and Incident Response material.  Rob Lee has spent the last ten years building and updating what has become one of the most well-known and respected digital forensics training courses.  The golden age of hacking is in full swing and a whole host of new threats have emerged, including state-sponsored espionage (aka APT), hactivism, client-side attacks, and crimeware.  Digital forensic investigations have never been more in demand.  However, computer intrusion and malware investigations require a very different skill set than the cases seen by the average forensic examiner.  Rob saw a great opportunity to update the FOR508 course to train this next generation of forensic professionals.  I estimate that at least 60-70% of the course and nearly every exercise  is new within the last year.  My specific part in the course is writing the new memory forensics day.  My forensic experience dates to the late 1990s, and I can’t remember any other advance in the field that has so fundamentally shifted the balance from the bad guys to the good guys.  Memory forensics is now a mature discipline and we have a wonderful array of  tools available, allowing us to analyze everything from raw memory files to hibernation files to crash dumps to live memory audits.   Memory analysis is a game changing skill and we spend a significant part of the new 508 course learning and incorporating the results of that analysis into the broader forensic process.

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Leveraging the Application Compatibility Cache in ForensicInvestigations (Whitepaper) | #DFIR
Chad Tilbury


UPDATE: A new Registry Ripper plugin,, was written by Harlan Carvey based on this research.

UPDATE 2: The Volatility memory analysis framework now has a plugin,, for finding and parsing the Application Compatibility Cache from a memory image.

Application Specific Geo-location

Web applications can often leave their own geo-location clues similar to those found via the mapping services.  While mapping artifacts are largely consistent, geo-artifacts created by applications are more haphazard.  Thus the number of available artifacts can be as numerous as the applications using geo-location services.  To illustrate this, we will analyze the artifacts left by two popular location-aware applications: Flickr and Twitter.

Mobile Flickr Geo-artifacts

Flickr Location

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Understanding Browser Artifacts

Geo-location artifacts demonstrate an interesting concept with regard to browser-based evidence.  Among the various browser artifacts, Internet history is a fan favorite because it provides such rich information.  There is no easier place to look to identify sites visited by a specific user at a specific time.  Browser history is so useful, a critical shortcoming is often ignored; with today’s dynamic web pages, the vast number of web page requests go unrecorded.  When a user visits a website, a multitude of requests are completed in the background to retrieve images and advertisements, populate web analytics, and load content from third parties.  The content retrieved from these requests is stored within the cache, and an entry within the cache database is created.  While the browser history database may only show the page visited, the cache holds most of the components retrieved to dynamically build that page.

Most browser-based geo-location artifacts are not stored within the browser history.  Looking back at the HTML5 standard, this makes perfect sense.  The fact that the API is JavaScript dependent is the first clue.  Also, the multiple steps and asynchronous nature of a geographical lookup indicate a lot is going on behind the scenes when that initial web page is accessed.  Luckily, data collected from the host must be passed to a geo-location service and those interactions are often recorded within the browser cache.  When content is cached, the URLs associated with the web request are also stored.  It is within these requests that we can mine geo-location parameters and coordinates passed to third parties such as Google Maps.

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